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45 Professional Terms of Chemical Water Treatment


1. Surface Water: It is present in the earth's surface which is exposed to the atmosphere, including the river, glacier, lake and marsh. Also called land water.


2. Groundwater: It refers to the burial and movement in different depth below the surface of the soil and rock gap in the water, the narrow sense of the groundwater is the underground 1000m range of water.


3. Raw Water: It refers to water collected in nature, including but not only the groundwater, reservoir water and other natural water without any artificial purification.


4. PH: It is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution, pH=-lg[H+] is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions.


5. Total Alkalinity: it refers to the total amount of substances which is capable of neutralizing with strong acids in water. The substances include strong alkali, weak alkali, strong alkali weak acid salt etc.


6. Phenolphthalein Alkalinity: also called phenolphthalein end一Point alkalinity, the alkalinity was tested with phenolphthalein as the indicator. ( The end point is pH=8.2~8.4)


7. Methyl Orange Alkalinity: the alkalinity was tested with Methyl Orange as the indicator. ( The end point is pH=3.1~4.4)


8. Total Acidity: it refers to the total amount of substances which is capable of neutralizing with strong alkali in water, the substances include inorganic acids, organic acids, strong acids weak base salts.


9. Total Hardness: In general natural water, it mainly refers to Ca2 + and Mg2 +, few other ion content. Generally the total content of Ca2 + and Mg2 + in water is called the total hardness of water.


10. Temporary Hardness: the hardness is formed due to the Ca(HCO3) and Mg(HCO3)2 in water, this type of hardness could be removed after boiling. It’s also called carbonate hardness, temporary hardness.


11. Permanent Hardness: It’s formed due to the salt substances like CaSO4 (CaCl2) and MgSO4 (MgCl2) etc which can’t be removed after boiling. The type of hardness is also called non-carbonate hardness, permanent hardness.


12. Solute: it exists in the water (or other solvent) solution in the form of simple molecules or ions, it’s about particle size which is usually only zero to a few nanometers, invisible to the human eye, there is no tyndall effect. And it can not be seen by a light microscope.


13. Colloid: it’s particle groups combined with a number of molecules or ions, the size is usually tens nanometers to tens of microns, invisible to the human eye, but the phenomenon of Tyndall occurs. Small colloidal paticles can’t be seen with a light microscope, but large one can be seen.


14. Suspended Solids: it’s a small particles visible to the human eye combined with a large number of molecules or ions, the size is usually tens microns or more. The suspended solids could be precipitated for a long time statics.


15. Total Salt Content: it refers to the total amount of water ions. It added all the cations and anions obtained from a full water quality analysis, the unit is mg / L (formerly PPM).


16. Turbidity: From a technical point of view, turbidity is a water quality substitute parameter which reflects the amount of suspended solids in water. The main suspended matter in water usually means the soil. The standard turbidity unit is 1PPM containing 1mg of silica in 1 L of distilled water.


17. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), the measure unit is milligrams/liter ( mg/L), it shows that how many milligrams of dissolved solids in 1 liter of water.,


18. Resistance: According to Ohm’s Law, in the case of a certain water temperature, the water resistance R size is proportional to the vertical cross-sectional area of the electrode F, and is inversely proportional to the distance L between the electrodes.


19. Conductance: the ability of water conduct an electric current is called conductivity or conductance. The unit is Siemens (S).


20. Conductivity(electrical conductance): water conductivity is the reciprocal of water resistance. It is usually used to indicate the purity of water.


21. Resistivity: the water resistivity refers to the resistance between the opposite sides of 1CM cubic water at a certain temperature, the unit is ohm*cm (Ω * CM), generally it indicates parameters of high purity water.


22. Demineralized Water: it refers to the water which is removed or reduced a certain degree of water hardness (mainly refers to water calcium, magnesium ions).


23. Desalinated Water: it refers to the water which is removed or reduced a certain degree of salt in water (mainly refers to strong electrolyte dissolved in water). The conductivity is generally 1.0-10.0μs / cm, the resistivity (25℃) is 0.1--1000000Ω.cm, the salt contect is 1.5mg / L.


24. Pure Water: it refers to the water which is removed or reduced a certain degree of strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes in water (such as SiO2, C02, etc). The conductivity is generally 1.0-0.1μs / cm, the resistivity is 1.0--1000000Ω.cm, the salt contect is <1mg / l.


25. Ultrapure Water: the conducting medium in water is almost completely removed, meanwhile the no dissociating gases, colloids and organic matter (including bacteria, etc) are also removed to a very low certain of water. The conductivity is generally O.1-0.055μs / cm, the resistivity (25 ℃)> 10 × 1000000Ω.cm, the salt contect is <0.1mg / l. The ideal pure water ( in theory) conductivity is (25 ℃)> 10 × 1000000Ω.cm and the resistivity(25 ℃) is 18.3 × 1000000 μs / cm.


26. Deoxygenated Water: it removes the dissolved oxygen in water which is generally used for boiler water.


27. Ion Exchange: it use difference of ion exchange capacity between the exchangeable groups in ion exchangers and ions in the solution to separate.


28. Cationic Resin: it has acidic groups. The acidic groups in solution can ionize to form H + which can be ion exchanged with cations in water.


29: Anion Resin: it has basic groups, the basic groups can ionize in aqueous solution and ion exchange with anion in water.


30: Inert Resin: it has no active groups and no ion exchange. The relative density is controlled between anion resin and cationic resin to separate them, to avoid cross-contamination when the anion resin and cationic resin regenerate, this could make the regeneration more complete.


31: Microfiltration: called MF, also microporous filtration, it’s precision filtration. The microfiltration can filter out micron pr nanoscale particles and bacteria in solution.


32: Ultrafiltration: called UF, it’s one of pressure-driven membrane separation technology. For the purpose of separating the macromolecules and small molecules, the membrane pore size is among 20-1000A °.


33. Nanofiltration: called NF, it is a pressure-driven membrane separation process between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membrane pore size is in the range of a few nanometers.


34. Penetration: ti is the phenomenon of water molecule spread through semipermeable membrane. It infiltrates from high water molecules area (ie, high concentration solutions) into low water molecules area (ie, low concentration solutions).


35. Osmotic Pressure: it’s minimum extra pressure to prevent the water penetrate from low concentration side to high concentrate side when the both side aqueous solution of semipermeable membrane are different.


36. Reverse Osmosis: called RO, it press the water from high concentrate solution to low concentrate solution by artificial pressure. RO reverse osmosis membrane pore size is as small as nanoscale, the water molecules can pass RO membrane under certain pressure, while the inorganic salt, heavy metal ions, organic matter, colloids, bacteria, virus and other impurities in the raw water can’t pass the RO membrane.


37. Dialysis: it’s a membrane separation operation driven by the concentration difference. The selective permeability of the membrane to the solute is utilized to separate the solutes with different properties.


38. Electrodialysis: called ED, when the dialysis is acted under an electric field, ED is the phenomenon that the charged solute particles (such as ions) in the solutions migrated through membrane.


39. EDI: also known as continuous electric desalination technology, it is a kind of pure water manufacturing technology combined ion exchange technology, ion exchange membrane technology and electromigration technology.


40. Recovery Rate: it refers to the percentage of the water turned into permeate water or permeate.


41. Desalination Rate: it refers to the percentage of total soluble impurity concentration removed from the system water through the reverse osmosis membrane, or the percentage of specific components such as divalent ions or organics removed through the nanofiltration membrane.


42. Permeable Salt Rate: the opposite of the rate of desalination, it is the percentage of impurities in the water through the membrane of soluble impurities. Permeate: purified water produced through the membrane system.


43. Flux: the flow rate of permeate per unit membrane area, it usually expresses in


grams per liter per square meter multiply per hour (l / m2h), or gallons per square foot per day (gfd).


44. Product Water: purified aqueous solution, permeate water of reverse osmosis or nanofiltration system.


45. Concentrated Water: the solution which is through the membrane, such as the concentrated water of reverse osmosis or nanofiltration system.


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