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Hydroelectric Station Technology

---Principles and Contents of Water Turbines Design


1.Information needed to choose a water turbine

When selecting turbines for the project, in addition to understanding the principles and policies of hydropower construction in China, you should also collect following information and data: the planning of water conservancy & hydropower and relevant parameters of power station scale, data in the power system, technical data of water turbines, local construction and transportation condition.

(1) Water conservancy and hydropower planning and parameters related to the power station scale: understanding the hydrology, geology, river development methods, reservoir regulation performance, power station type and layout etc. Get the characteristics parameters of head and flow etc, such as the maximum head, minimum head, average head, design head, maximum flow, average flow, installed capacity and the water level flow curve of power station altitude and downstream.

(2) Information of the power system where it’s located: such as the power system capacity; load conditions; users nature; the designed station function,status in the system; the design demand of the system etc.

(3) Water turbines technical data: such as the model, parameters and performance of the hydro turbines,technical information of similar power station etc.

(4) Local construction and transportation conditions.


2.Principles to choose a water turbine

When choosing a turbine: choose the good performance and small size hydro turbine under conditions that it satisfy the hydropower station output requirements and the hydropower station parameters (head and flow).

Good performance includes good energy performance and good resistance to cavitation erosion. Good energy performance requires high efficiency of the turbine product, not only the highest efficiency, but also the average efficiency is high in the case of head and load changes. To meet above requirements, we should select smooth curve changing turbines within hydropower station head change range. Good cavitation resistance means that the cavitation coefficient of selected water turbine is smaller, which can ensure the unit operation stable and reliable.

In order to make the turbines small in size, a higher specific speed turbines should be selected. Higher rotational speed turbines, smaller the turbine runner diameter is. So when we select the turbines, it should equal to or slightly higher than the optimal unit rotation speed, and the amount should adopt the maximum unit flow rate recommended in the type stave to fully utilize the turbine’s water capacity and reduce the turbine size.

Besides above factors, we also need to consider that the selected turbines are easy to supply with little transportation difficulties, and easy construction and installation to shorten the construction period of the hydropower stations as much as possible and strive to generate electricity as soon as possible.


3.Elements to select a turbine

If you need a turbine, you will usually formulate several possible alternatives, find the kinetic economic indicators of each candidate program and compare them, finally determine the best solution. For each option to be selected, the main contents of the turbine should include:

(1) Select the unit number and each capacity

(2) Select the turbine model and device way

(3) Determine the turbine runner diameter and rotation speed

(4) Determine the maximum allowable suction height and installation elevation of the turbine

(5) Draw the overall performance curve of the turbine (usually provided by the manufacturer)

(6) Determine the form and size of the volute and draft tube

(7) Select the speed governor and hydraulic device

No category Mar 30,2018 HNAC Comments are closed

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