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Composition of Speed Governor for Water Turbine


Ha Song Pha 1 Hydropower Project 16


1.Main task of hydro-turbine governors

The continuous change of the load of the power grid system will lead continuously change to the grid system frequency. The main task of the turbine governor is to maintain the turbine at rated speed by adjusting the output power of the turbine generator set.

The turbine changes the guide vane opening ( or needle stroke) when the unit load changes, to make the unit rotational speed maintained at the rated value or a predetermined value (called turbine adjustment).


According to the principle of asynchronous AC motor: rotation speed n=60f/P (f-frequency; p-pole pair)

Accordingly, the speed n is proportional to the power frequency f, and adjusting the speed of the unit is the adjustment of the output frequency of the unit.

Turbine regulation is essentially speed regulation. The device for this adjustment is called the turbine governor, it adjusts the guide vane opening based on the deviation of the unit speed.


2.Composition of turbine speed governor system

The turbine speed governor system generally consists of speed regulation cabinet, servomotor and oil pressure supply unit.

(1) Speed Regulation Cabinet

It’s the main equipment to control the turbine which can feel and enlarge the command, operate the actuator to keep the speed within the rated range. The speed regulation cabinet could also be used to start or stop the turbine, adjust the governor parameters.

(2) Servomotor

Servomotor is the actuator of the governor, it controls the turbine governor ring ( control ring) to adjust the guide vane opening to change the flow into the turbine.

(3) Oil pressure supply unit

Consist of pressure tank, back to tank, oil pump.

In the pressure tank, 1/3 is oil, 2/3 is compressed air which is to ensure the stability of the oil pressure, the tank rated oil pressure is generally 2.5MPa, 4.0MPa. If the oil level in the pressure tank is down to the limit, and the oil pressure is lower than rated pressure 0.2-0.3 MPa, the oil pump will automatically push the oil in the back-to-tank into the pressure tank to make the oil level reach the specified position, once the pressure reaches the rated oil pressure, the oil pump will shut off automatically. Two oil pumps should be set up for safety and used as backups.

In the small and medium governors, the speed regulation cabinet, servomotor and oil pressure supply unit are combined together into a whole; in the large governors, the three parts are set separately.


3.Type of speed governor

(1) According to the difference of speed measuring components, the governor can be divided into two categories: mechanical hydraulic type and electric hydraulic type.

The mechanical hydraulic control part is a mechanical component (fly pendulum, lever, etc.), and the operation part is a hydraulic system.

The electro-hydraulic type control part is a frequency measuring loop (frequency measurement, amplification, feedback), and the operating part is a hydraulic system.

(2) According to the different number of adjustment institutions, it is divided into single adjustment and double adjustment.

Single adjustment means that the water guide mechanism is the only adjustment object, and it is suitable for mixed-flow and axial-flow paddle type turbines;

Double Adjustment means a regular with dual adjustment objects, such as an axial-flow paddle type turbine which adjusts not only adjusting the water-guiding mechanism, but also adjusting the turning angle of the runner; a impulse-type turbine adjust the needle valve, also the baffle.

(3) According to the different capacity of the speed governor, it can be divided into large governor and small & medium governor.

The main valve diameter of large governor is more than 80mm; the governor power of medium governor is 10000-30000N˙m; the governor power of small speed governor is less than 10000 N˙m.


4.Series of speed governor


(1) large(none),flow type(T),small and medium type with oil pressure device(Y)

(2) mechanical hydraulic type(none),electro-hydraulic type(D)

(3) single adjustment(none), double adjustment(S)

(4) speed governor code(T)

(5)large type is main valve diameter mm, small&medium type is governor power N.m

(6) remodel sequence markers, A,B,C...

(7) rated oil pressure 2.5Mpa, none data if under 2.5Mpa


5.Series of oil pressure supply unit


(1) separation type(none),combined type(H)

(2) oil pressure supply unit(YZ)

(3) total volume of oil pressure(m³)

(4) remodel sequence markets,A,B,C...

(5) pressure oil box numbers, none means one tank

(6) pressure oil tank numbers

(7) rated oil pressure, none means 2.5Mpa

No category Apr 10,2018 HNAC Comments are closed

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May 07,2017

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May 06,2017

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May 06,2017

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